I finally did my research on applique.
I used a super thin, double-sided adhesive webbing, and fused one side of the webbing to my fabric. On the other side of the adhesive webbing, I traced a flower template onto the protective paper backing. I then cut out the traced shapes and peeled off the protective paper backing, and ironed them onto the quilt.
So far, that's all I have done. I was going to sew them on, but then realized that I might have some overlapping with sewing my quilt squares. Something to figure out this weekend, I hope.